Viktorija Trninić, Igor Jelaska, Janez Štalec
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split; Faculty of natural sciences mathematics, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
indent Abstract
The goal of the paper was to depict the status of FA from the historical and contemporary aspects of trait psychology and kinesiology research along with the guidelines for the use of FA methods. Researchers in psychology and kinesiology apply factor analytical methods in research of abilities and traits with the purpose of developing hierarchical theories of personality organization. However, limiting oneself to a single research approach with the purpose of developing a classification of abilities and personality traits is restrictive, determining our understanding of human behaviour according to a certain theoretical perspective. Furthermore, researchers in psychology and kinesiology have different approaches according to application of FA in identifying people's abilities and traits and to the number of abilities and traits used for describing personality. The development of research methodology which defines latent structural relationships inherently brings the necessity to reconsider appropriateness and limitations of factor analysis application in psychology and kinesiology. Statistical technique of factor analysis is used as a part of the nomothetic model to answer questions within the theory of abilities and traits which correspond to the personality structure in a more general sense. Through a problem-based approach, factor rotations, the possible ambiguity of the results obtained and the degree of correspondence between different research studies were considered. Furthermore, the appropriateness of strategies of the research approach in the usage of FA methods was illustrated. In accordance, examples of problems in the usage of FA methods were elaborated.
Boro Štrumbelj, Saša Jakovljević, Frane Erčulj
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport; University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.
indent Abstract
The article basically aims to present the applicability of the modified "30-15IFT" test on a sample of the senior women's national basketball team of Serbia. The technology we employed enabled us to acquire a number of parameters about the test as such and the study subjects' endurance. In addition to the level of development of specific indicators of the special endurance of female basketball players, we were interested in the differences between individual player types. The results show that after about 13 minutes of running the subjects on average achieved a maximum speed of 15.5 km/h, with a maximum heart rate of 187.4 beats·min-1, a maximum lactate concentration of 7.8 mmol-1, maximum relative oxygen uptake of 52.2 ml·min-1/kg-1, a maximum minute volume of exhaled carbon dioxide of 3473.5 ml·min-1 and a maximum lung ventilation of 117.6 l·min-1. In the last two variables statistically significant differences were found between individual types of players (guards, forwards and centers). The field "30-15IFT" intermittent fitness test proved to be suitable for assessing the current functional abilities of male and female basketball players and for identifying variations in their fitness in different periods of training. However, some issues concerning the applicability of the test for scientific and research purposes still have to be clarified.
Marko Trninić, Mario Jeličić, Nikola Foretić
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split; Croatia Osiguranje basketball club, Croatia.
indent Abstract
The purpose of this research was to establish and explain the relations between the variables of morphological status and situation-related efficiency of basic types of players on one hand and, on the other, the final placement of top junior basketball teams in the competition. Based on the obtained results, we can assume that the morphological status of forwards and centres, unlike guards, distinguishes well-ranked teams from the low-ranked ones in a competition. Thus, well-ranked teams, with relation to the low-ranked ones, have centres with marked longitudinality and forwards with less marked adiposity and greater voluminosity. Further on, on the sample of guards, we have established relations between the parameters of situation-related efficiency and sport achievement on the level of statistic significance (p<0.01). Well-ranked teams, in relation to the low-ranked ones, have guards with the ability of passing which is expressed through assists and realization abilities for two and three-point scores.
Vladimir Ilić, Miloš Mudrić, Goran Kasum, Marko Ćirković, Dejan Gavrilović FSPE University of Belgrade; Ministry of Finance Economy, Customs; School for the Shipping, Shipbuilding and Hydro-building, Belgrade.
indent Abstract
The goal of this research was to determine influence of systematical judo practice on morphological and motor characteristics of young students. The sample of this ex-post- factor research included 25 judokas of approximate age of 8.52 years and 32 non-athletes with approximate age of 8.59 years. Morphological and motor characteristic of the students exposed to certain influence of practicing judo were compared to morphological and motor characteristic of those young students who are not exposed to any kind of practicing influence and are marked as non-athletes. For evaluation three variables were observed morphological characteristic and five for motor characteristics. Two-way T-test for small independent groups was used for testing arithmetic mean differences between groups in the individual variables. The results of the analysis indicated that, as for morphological characteristics, there is a significant difference between judokas group and non-athletes group in height. As for motor characteristics there is a significant difference between these two groups in the following variables: velocity strength, repetitive strength and agility, while there were no statistically significant differences for strong stamina and flexibility. The acquired results can be explained by genetic condition of the observed variables at young school ages, as well as with the fact that some of the school children from the judo group were relatively shortly exposed to the training influence. Besides, some of the school children from the non-athletes group practice some other sport but during the test they were not members of any sport team or sport club.
Dejan Savičević, Dejan Suzović, Branislav Dragić
Preschool Teacher Training College, Sremska Mitrovica; University of Belgrade FSPE; University of Niš, FSPE.
indent Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of the nine-month program of physical activity-oriented models on the motor status of children aged 6-7 years. A hypothetical research framework is based on the assumption that a specific programming model of physical activity, based upon social and constructionist approach, for a period of nine months will bring positive transformation effects on motor skills of preschool children. The survey was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged (MEAN±SD) 6.23 ± 0.88 years, who were not included in additional sports programs. The sample was divided into two sub-samples, experimental (N = 61) and control group (N = 67). The set of 12 motor tests was applied to test six hypothetic motor factors. Children included in experimental and control groups were subjected to nine months long physical activities programme five times per a week. Each organizational form of physical education for experimental group was 30% longer than the identical forms of physical activities planned by regular curriculum in kindergarten. Programdesign of experimental group was based on the premises of social constructionist approach, which represented the basis for differentiated physical activities. Significant difference in developmental level of motor abilities was assessed by multivariate (MANOVA repeated measures) and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA repeated measures). Results of multivaraite analysis of variance (MANOVA repeated measures) revealed significant difference (F=37.14, p=0.03, Eта=0.64) in the developmental level of children's motor skills between control and experimental groups. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in variables of force, explosive strength, repetitive strength, speed and speed elements, in favour of experimental group. Developmental level of motor abilities of children included in the experimental treatment significantly differs from the level of achieved motor abilities of preschool children included in regular physical education curiculum.
Lidija Moskovljević, Ana Orlić
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.
indent Abstract
Although male or female characteristics are traditionally attributed to some sports, contemporary trends are going in the direction of changing gender inequality in sport and physical education. The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between motor and musical abilities of students, attitudes towards rhythmic gymnastics, their success in mastering the program contents of the theory and methodology of rhythmic gymnastics (T&M RG) and genders. The sample consisted of 104 subjects, third year students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade. Motor and musical abilities were made operational by the scores on tests that are an integral part of the qualifying exam on the FSPE: the test of general motor abilities, the test of specific motor abilities with the ball, and the test for assessing the sense of movement and rhythm and checking musicality, and the success in mastering the content of T&M RG by the grade from this subject. Subjects' attitudes were measured by the Connotative differential instrument, which includes three dimensions of an attitude: affective, cognitive and conative. In addition, the data on school achievement of subjects were collected. The results showed that the subjects of female and male gender did not differ in their achievements in the test for assessing the sense of rhythm and movement and musicality, as well as in their achievements in T&M RG. Also, it is shown that this test is predictive for the assessment in the subject T&M RG. Although the attitudes of both genders were very positive, it was shown that women had slightly more positive attitudes than men. The subjects' attitudes towards rhythmic gymnastics were positively correlated with the grade in T&M RG. The results indicated that students of both genders in their future pedagogical practice would be ready to equally successfully apply rhythmic gymnastics as one of the physical education program contents.
Vujadin M. Mujović, Dejan G. Čubrilo
American school of Medicine at Belgrade.
indent Abstract
This paper describes the most important goals of a pre-participation sports screening, factors for individual adjustment of examination and important factors that enable each person to safely engage in physical activities. In relation to age, special attention, in terms of additional diagnostic procedures, is paid to prepubertal, pubertal age and to older people. Disturbances in menstrual cycle often occur in active women athletes and require early assessment of nutritional and hormonal status. In assessing the state of the cardiovascular system, it is especially important to assess the risk of sudden cardiac death. According to Maron study (Maron et al, 1996), causes of sudden cardiac death are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, atherosclerosis and aortic rupture. Physical examination of the cardiovascular system involves a good knowledge of the subtle changes of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters, with particular attention that should be focused on electrocardiographic changes that change with age and the changes that are under the influence of training load, especially in terms of disruption of redox balance and nutritional status.