Lindsay M. Bottoms, Michael J. Price
School of Health & Bioscience, University of East London.
indent Abstract
During upper body exercise the vascular adaptations of the leg have been reported to play an important thermoregulatory role. This study examined the effect of exercise intensity on thermoregulation during upper body exercise. Nine healthy male participants undertook an incremental exercise test on an arm crank ergometer to determine peak power (Wpeak). The participants performed four experimental trials involving 5 minutes of arm exercise at either 45, 60, 75, or 90% Wpeak (70 rev.min-1) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. Aural and skin temperatures, upper arm and calf heat fl ow were recorded. Calf volume was measured during exercise using plethysmography. During exercise at 45, 60, 75 and 90% Wpeak calf volume decreased (P<0.05) by -0.7±0.8, -1.4±0.9, -1.2±0.6 and -1.6±0.7% respectively. Differences were observed between 45 and 60% Wpeak, and 45 and 90% Wpeak (P<0.05). The results of this study suggest a redistribution of blood from the relatively inactive lower body during arm exercise of intensities up to 60%Wpeak after which point calf volume does not signifi cantly decrease further. Therefore, the redistribution of blood from the inactive lower body does not produce a similar intensity dependent response to visceral blood fl ow during lower body exercise.
Saša Jakovljević, Milivoje Karalejić, Zoran Pajić, Radivoj Mandić
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade.
indent Abstract
The aim of this survey was to examine the ability of acceleration and the agility of basketball players. The survey was conducted on a sample of 35 professional Bulgarian basketball players (average age 21.37 ± 2.91 years) who competed in the First Bulgarian Basketball League and were divided into two groups depending on the position of the game: inner players - N = 13 and outer players - N = 22. They were chosen by experts as the best national players in the league. Two tests were applied: 20 meter run (acceleration - T20m) and T-test (agility - TT). During the 20- meter run test, the running times of fi ve (T5m) and 10 meters (T10m) were measured. In addition, body height (BH) and body mass (BM) were measured. Inner players were signifi cantly taller and heavier than the outer players, but no statistically signifi cant differences were found between the two groups of players in the acceleration and agility variables, having in mind that on all the tests outer players achieved better results. High correlations were found between three acceleration variables (T5m, T10m and T20m) and one agility variable (TT) - correlation coeffi cients of .666 to .819 at the signifi cance level of .01.The correlations between body height and acceleration variables are medium - correlation coeffi cients of .306 to .383, at the signifi cance level of .05, while the correlation coeffi cients between body mass and these variables are slightly higher .350 to .415 at the signifi cance level of .01, or .05.
Marko Trninić, Mario Jeličić, Igor Jelaska
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.
indent Abstract
The basic goal of this research was to determine the differences between junior players playing particular positions in the basketball game based on the indicators of situational effi cacy. The sample of examinees consisted of 108 top-level junior basketball players who in average played a minimum of 8 minutes per game and in more than 3 games, and were chosen from 11 teams that played 46 games in the Junior European Championship in Zadar in year 2000. The results show discrepancies in the space of situational effi cacy amongst 5 player positions, as follows: players who play the point guard and the shooting guard are dominant in variables SHOT3-SU, SHOT3-UN, ASSIST, ST and TO. The players who play the position of forward are dominant in variables SHOT2-SU and SHOT2-UN, especially in relation to the power forward and point guard and the shooting guard. Furthermore, the players who play centres can best be distinguished from those playing other positions in variables: DR, OR, BL, SHOT2- SU i PF. We suggest that further research also includes nonstandard parameters of situational effi cacy when analysing differences between elite junior and senior players who play different positions in the game.
Aleksandar Janković, Bojan Leontijević, Milan Pašić, Veselin Jelušić
FSPE - University of Belgrade, Primary school "Ivo Andrić" Belgrade, College of Sports and Health Belgrade.
indent Abstract
The aim of this study is to compare tactical manifestations of soccer teams, different competitive success, defi ned on the basis of the achieved results in one match at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The teams were divided into 3 groups based on the match results, the tactical analysis included a total of 60 matches of 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The fi rst sub-sample of the subjects (winning) was consisted of the teams that won in the fi nal result, the second sub-sample (draw) were the teams that ended in tied score (no winner), while the third subsample (defeat) consisted of the teams which were defeated in the course of regular 90-minute game. Based on the previously processed data, which were taken from the offi cial website of the International Federation of Association Soccer (, the observed parameters refer to the game effi ciency, tactical attacking resource - passing the ball and the ball passing structure. Based on the analysis of the successful attacks frequency, it was revealed that there is a statistically signifi cant difference in the number of successful attacks between the teams that had achieved different results (p = 0.003), in favor of the winning teams. Additionally, the successfulness of attacks, observed through their accuracy, indicates the differences in their distribution (p = 0.000) between the aforesaid groups. The results also indicate that the total run distance, on the level of one team is not associated with the fi nal result. However, ball possession (P = 0.001), overall number of passes (p = 0.015) and overall number of correct passes (P = 0.013) were fi gured as important factors in achieving better results, while the analysis of the effi cacy percentage and the structure of the game that applied passing, i.e., pass length is little or not associated with the fi nal result. The results of this study can help identify those tactical attacking resources in soccer, which
contribute to achieving better results.
Irina Juhas, Ana Orlić, Dušanka Lazarević, Nenad Janković, Milan Matić
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade.
indent Abstract
The syllabus of the track and fi eld subject at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education includes cross-country running - running in nature. The main objective of this study was to determine the structure and intensity of students' attitude toward the cross-country running. Besides, the objective was to check the connection of the students' attitude towards the cross-country running and the achieved results of cross-country running, as well as of doing sport and recreational running. The sample comprised 69 students of the second year of studies who attended the cross-country running classes. For measuring the attitude toward the cross-country running, the Connotative differential instrument was used consisting of 15 pairs of opposite adjectives presented in a form of seven-part bipolar scale grouped into three dimensions: affective, cognitive and conative. This instrument was applied within an extensive questionnaire which included questions about doing sports, jogging, as well as the results of cross-country running at the end of the teaching period. The descriptive analysis has shown that students have a positive attitude of moderate intensity toward cross-country running, observed through all three dimensions of attitude. The correlation analysis between the dimensions of attitude toward cross country running and the results achieved at cross country running showed that the correlations are negative and statistically signifi cant, suggesting that if the result of running is better, the students' attitude toward cross country running is more positive. Competitive sport is not connected with the quality of attitude toward crosscountry running. The results obtained by the study give grounds for assuming that, given that attitudes are an important component of the motivational aspect of personality, it can be expected that the students' positive attitude toward cross country running would contribute to cross country running application in their future professional activity and encourage this form of physical activity.
Miodrag Andrić
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade.
indent Abstract
This study was primarily aimed at detecting dribbling techniques, used in the European Championship in Poland, their frequency and effi ciency. Secondary goal of the research was to explain the game of basketball in offense in a more exact way according to the analysed technical and tactical dribbling activities. In the sample of eight games four variables were observed: time of using dribble, different starts of dribble, dribble course and dribble fi nish. Observation protocol was applied on each game and on each player separately. According to the acquired data it can be concluded that eight games at the 2009 European Championship in Poland were dominated by the dribbling technique which was characterised by crossover step, in which cross over dribble was most used and most frequent fi nish was in passing after stop. When it comes to the time of using dribble, it is evident that all the observed teams had almost the same time of using dribble, but that also the time of using dribble partly affected fi nal placement, because the teams which used it the least played in the fi nals , Spain 31.28 minutes and Serbia 32.28 minutes. The team that used dribbling the least became the champion, and that was the team of Spain.
Goran Kasum, Strašo Gligorov, Tanja Nastasić-Stošković
FSPE - University of Belgrade, SVR Skoplje, Makedonija, KBC "Dr Dragiša Mišović", Beograd.
indent Abstract
In literature, the term adapted sport indicates sports activities, modifi ed and adapted to persons with disabilities. In spite of their highly prominent values, combat sports are underrepresented among persons with disabilities in Serbia. The benefi ts of combat sports practicing are numerous, and at some international hospitals, martial sports and arts already have an important role in the treatment of traumatized and disabled persons. Currently, the programme of Paralympic Games includes only two sports, these are fencing and judo, in male and female competition. Almost certainly, karate will also be included in the programme of Paralympic Games, and there are similar ambitions in the case of taekwondo as well. In addition to these sports, some martial arts, especially aikido, thai-chi-chuan and qigong, have obtained significant representation and interest among persons with disabilities. The reasons for weaker interest in other martial sports and arts, should be sought in the fact that they are underrepresented among this population, and that these persons are not offered the possibility of organized practice of such sports. Orientation towards a combat sport brings great refreshment and powerful emotional experience to each practitioner, and this fact has special signifi cance to persons with disabilities. In Serbia, combat sports are not widely represented among persons with disabilities, and only the wrestlers with impaired hearing have achieved signifi cant success on the international stage. On the other hand, the popularity of combat sports among persons with disabilities in the world is signifi cantly growing. It is necessary to take
concrete steps to make it so in Serbia as well.
Jaroslava Radojević
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade.
indent Abstract
Within the Standards for completion of compulsory education, elaborated by the Institute for education quality evaluation, adopted in 19th May 2009 by the National Educational Council of Serbia, there are standards for ten teaching subjects, PE included. The aim of this paper is to introduce them, immediately before the adoption of the standards, possibly before their publishing in the Offi cial Journal, to the professional public as well as to prepare and activate them fi r the process of their incorporation and application in practice. The paper considers the basic features of PE standards: testability, direction at fundamental knowledge, abilities and skills; accumulation (taking into consideration contents of both elementary education cycles); differentiated approach to students; feasibility and obligation. By comparative analysis of a formulated, valid aim of PE, of syllabuses for elementary education and recommendations for the way of its realizations and features of educational standards for completion of elementary education, in which educational aims and tasks are concretized through students – acquisitions – outcomes visible in both behaviour and reasoning, the answer is given to the question of how to achieve better effects, increase PE quality with the capacities we have at our disposal. Directed at: ability in skills; knowledge on physical exercises and physical education by the, the standards objectively assessment, making thus the marks comparable and provide foundation for further development of self-evaluation instruments. One the major contributions of realization of instruction process in compliance with the educational standards is activation of teachers, students, parents and school. The paper also presents the dilemmas related to concrete problems in PE educational fi eld (subject), primarily in conditions for realization of PE syllabuses as well as realization of instruction contents within the fi rst cycle of elementary education, which however shall directly refl ect to possibilities of standard achievement for completion of compulsory education. Thus, the need is stressed to adopt the standards but also to ensure their full realization ay the end of the fi rst cycle of elementary education.