Diagnosis of athlete's preparedness by analysis of electromuscular response of respiratory muscles
Tuesday, 09 July 2024 17:14
Mirko Ostojic, Sascha Cvetkovic, Djordje Stefanovic.
Research and Development Institute Lola L.T.D., Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

indent Abstract
Modern diagnostics of athlete preparation involves the acquisition of a large number of data, which requires superior knowledge, serious logistics, protocols, staff, time, etc. Technological breakthroughs in surface electromyography (sEMG) in measuring the activities of respiratory muscles in vivo opened new possibilities in this direction. The correlation between physical preparedness and the ability to maintain breath has been a theoretical phenomenon for over a century. The result at the duration of the breath holding time (BHT) is generally considered a positive indicator of the volume of respiratory capacity during physical activity. Experimental research determined involuntary activities of auxiliary respiratory musculature at the end of the quiet retention of breath and are determined as a physiological break point of breath holding. The time from the start of the breath holding to the first involuntary breathing movement (IBM) is called the control pause (CP). Since this time is not the physiological maximum of breath holding, it is very important to determine the exact moment of reaching the first IBM and the time-frequency characteristics of sEMG signals during the IBM phase (work problem). Using Wavelet methodology, the analysis of sEMG signals is performed on three skeletal muscles, two inhaling (M. Scalenus - Anterior et Medium - SC, and M. Parasternal Intercostales - IC) and one exhalatory (M. Rectus abdominis - Ra), that in addition to others, have auxiliary role and function in the respiratory cycle, and that are sensitive to physiological changes due to apnea, so in their neuromotor response are a possible indicator of metabolic processes that are detected as involuntary breathing movements. Multiple growths in the electrical activity of these muscles during IBM in certain frequency ranges have enabled precise IBM measurement, thus determining the physiologically acceptable duration of the CP. Observation and analysis of the specific respiratory and muscular response indicate dominations of hypoxic or hypercapnic metabolic condition (subject of research). Based on monitoring these changes in 12 subjects classified in the group categorized amateur athletes, it was determined that better-trained subjects have longer CP and react hypercapnically. The conclusions of this non-experimental case study correspond to the practice of training preparation but open the space for new research, primarily those who should develop an affordable method for non-invasive real-time physical preparation.


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